Weekly Local weather and Power Information Roundup #425

The Week That Was: 2020-09-19 (September 19, 2020)

Dropped at You by SEPP (www.SEPP.org)

The Science and Environmental Coverage Undertaking

Quote of the Week: “It’s one factor to impose drastic measures and harsh financial penalties when an environmental downside is clear-cut and extreme. It’s fairly one other to take action when the environmental downside is basically hypothetical and never substantiated by cautious observations. That is undoubtedly the case with international warming.” – Frederick Seitz, Introduction to Fred Singer’s Scorching Discuss, Chilly Science (1999)

Variety of the Week: 64%


By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Coverage Undertaking (SEPP)

NO TWTW NEXT WEEK: There will likely be no TWTW the week of September 26. TWTW will resume the weekend of October Three.


Greenhouse Impact – Essential for Life: Final week, TWTW mentioned that in 1859, physicist John Tyndall started experiments on gases that intervene with the lack of electromagnetic power (warmth) from the floor of the earth to house. These gases, referred to as greenhouse gases, preserve the earth hotter than it will be in any other case, significantly at night time. Tyndall acknowledged that water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gasoline, and with out it land plenty would freeze at night time, making vegetative development nearly unattainable.

William Happer and W. A. van Wijngaarten specialised in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics the sector that features spectroscopy, which is the research of the interplay between matter and electromagnetic radiation. They used the high-resolution transmission molecular absorption database (HITRAN), which simulates the transmission and emission of sunshine within the environment, to calculate the affect of a doubling of CO2 and a 6% improve in water vapor within the environment. They arrive at an higher certain of 1.5 levels Okay (C), extra more likely to be round 1 diploma C, which is considerably lower than the bottom estimate by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Local weather Change (IPCC) and its local weather modelers.

Happer and van Wijngaarten have estimated that with out the greenhouse impact the temperature of the floor of the earth can be about 16 ºF (minus 9 ºC) nicely under freezing. Additional, even assuming that liquid water would exist, at night time the land plenty can be bitterly chilly, stopping any development of vegetation.

This work is the cumulation of over 150 years of analysis by which there have been quite a few blind alleys or useless ends. For instance, in 1896 Svente Arrhenius very roughly estimated that doubling CO2 may trigger a temperature rise of possibly as much as 5 ~ 6 C. Ten years later, he retracted that estimate, making a brand new estimate half that dimension. Others confirmed that the later estimates had been nonetheless too excessive.

There’s disagreement amongst those that have studied the issue on the extent to which water vapor accounts for your entire greenhouse impact. It could be 75% to 90%. However there is no such thing as a disagreement it’s the dominant greenhouse gasoline.

Additional, what is important in understanding the greenhouse impact is that because the focus of a gasoline will increase, its capability to trigger a change in temperature diminishes to a situation known as “saturation,” and it’s correct in addition to handy to signify the change by a logarithmic curve. Within the case of CO2, its significance begins to say no even under 100 components per million (ppm), and at 400 ppm the affect of carbon dioxide (CO2) is near full saturation. – having little further impact. Thus, huge will increase in CO2 are wanted to have even a minor affect on temperature. Based mostly on experiments and observations, so known as “run-away greenhouse” on earth is unattainable.

Sadly, some local weather analysts who is probably not accustomed to arithmetic might have confused a logarithmic relationship with its inverse, an exponential relationship. Exponential relationships between greenhouse gases and temperatures have been utilized in publications by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Local weather Change. For instance, the Abstract for Policymakers of the Third Evaluation Report (SPM, AR3 (2007)) confirmed exponential relationships between radiative forcing (an estimate for adjustments in temperatures) and carbon dioxide; methane; and nitrous oxide. In every occasion, this was achieved by grafting two totally different datasets onto each other, ice cores and atmospheric samples, with out calibrating them. (pp Three & four)

Water vapor creates a serious downside in modeling the environment, and the local weather. It varies considerably by latitude, season, day, and hour. For instance, the MODTRAN (MODerate decision atmospheric TRANsmission), model 6, pc code offers varied values for concentrations of atmospheric water vapor: These embody excessive values for the tropics, and totally different values for mid-late summer time; mid-late winter, sub-Arctic summer time, sub-Arctic winter, and US normal. The very best worth is tropical, 5119 moles per unit at normal stress and temperature; the bottom worth is sub-Arctic winter with 518 moles at normal stress and temperature, the US normal worth is 1762 moles.

These values, based mostly on satellite tv for pc observations, are used to estimate how the altering greenhouse gases within the environment can distort electromagnetic radiation.

Thus, it’s extremely questionable if local weather modeling with out rigorous testing towards bodily knowledge of the environment obtained via observations could be efficient in estimating how the local weather adjustments with altering greenhouse gases. The well-known 1979 Charney Report introduced no bodily knowledge supporting its estimates. See hyperlinks beneath Difficult the Orthodoxy, https://www.ipcc.ch/web site/property/uploads/2018/02/ar4-wg1-spm-1.pdf, and



Photosynthesis – Essential for Life: The second main greenhouse gasoline, carbon dioxide, is crucial for all times above, on, and close to the floor of the earth. Utilizing power from the solar, the method of photosynthesis converts H2O and CO2 into flora.  That in flip turns into meals for different life types. Photosynthesis is current from easy one-cell life (corresponding to some micro organism and blue-green algae) all the way in which to very large crops as massive as redwoods.

About 200 meters (650 ft) deep within the oceans, daylight is just not ample for the power wanted for photosynthesis. Nonetheless, micro organism and different easy life types use power launched by inorganic chemical reactions to supply meals (sugar) in a course of known as chemosynthesis. In geothermal vents micro organism oxidize hydrogen sulfide, and a posh internet of life has advanced round them. The ground of the Gulf of Mexico teems with life round hydrocarbon seeps, which launch methane, asphalt, and different hydrocarbons. To this point, it seems that solely easy cell life corresponding to micro organism can use chemosynthesis to supply meals, whereas advanced life corresponding to mussels and tubeworms devour the micro organism or their subsequent merchandise.

Thus, the present demonization of carbon dioxide and the greenhouse impact is a demonization of the foundations of life as we usually acknowledge it. Because the late Frederic Seitz states within the citation of the week:

“It’s one factor to impose drastic measures and harsh financial penalties when an environmental downside is clear-cut and extreme. It’s fairly one other to take action when the environmental downside is basically hypothetical and never substantiated by cautious observations. That is undoubtedly the case with international warming.”

We should ask what are the cautious observations used to justify the claims that rising carbon dioxide is inflicting harmful greenhouse gasoline warming? See hyperlinks beneath Difficult the Orthodoxy and https://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/info/photochemo.html.


Nomination of David Legates: The Professor of Climatology on the College of Delaware has been nominated to change into Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Environmental Statement and Prediction at NOAA. An creator or co-author of over 100 papers on local weather, precipitation and comparable matters, Legates has brazenly questioned the rigor of US Nationwide Local weather Evaluation experiences. For this, he has earned the wrath of a number of members of Congress, together with the Chair of the Home Committee on Pure Assets and the Chair of the Home Subcommittee on Water, Oceans, and Wildlife. They wrote the Performing Underneath Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Environment, Nationwide Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, a letter stating:

“Dr. Legates has testified earlier than our Committee downplaying or downright refuting the anthropogenic drivers of our present local weather disaster. He acknowledged: ‘Local weather has at all times modified, and climate is at all times variable as a result of advanced, highly effective pure forces. No efforts to stabilize the local weather can probably achieve success.’ He went on: ‘…transition[ing] from fossil fuels to so known as clear power to guard us from local weather change is a recipe for private and financial catastrophe that can have nearly no impression on the Earth’s local weather.’ NOAA’s personal knowledge, compiled over the 50 years of the company’s existence, factors to precisely the other. Particularly, the third Nationwide Local weather Evaluation coauthored by NOAA acknowledged ‘International local weather is altering, and that is obvious throughout the USA in a variety of observations. The worldwide warming of the previous 50 years is primarily as a result of human actions, predominantly the burning of fossil fuels.’

“Dr. Legates’ appointment is an excessive danger to the American public and an insult to the standard science and scientists at NOAA. That is one more instance of a disturbing development within the infusion of a political agenda into science. Dr. Legates has gone on the report in opposition to sound science strictly for private acquire and the development of a political agenda. Such behaviors undermine the scientific integrity at NOAA and mustn’t have a spot in your company.”

Apparently, these members of Congress imagine that the local weather system, which has by no means been in equilibrium could be stabilized; that change is primarily due to make use of of fossil fuels, when doubling carbon dioxide causes a disturbance of lower than 2% of atmospheric power flows; and that the (US) Third Evaluation Report (2014) is a regular of excellence for NOAA. It’s helpful to evaluate this normal of excellence. Its key findings embody:

It’s usually acknowledged that photosynthesis will increase with rising carbon dioxide. The greening of the earth is nicely established. The slide on ragweed pollen seasons demonstrates that the 2013 Nationwide Local weather Evaluation report is trivial and needs to be so handled. The decline in corn and soybean yields with rising temperatures is instantly contradicted by American farm yields and by the truth that tropical Brazil is a number one competitor in exports of corn (maize) and leads the US in exports of soybeans. See hyperlinks beneath Defending the Orthodoxy and Change in US Administrations – Appointment.


Up to date US Nationwide Evaluation: Writing for the UK International Warming Coverage Basis, Paul Homewood examines the newest US Nationwide Local weather Evaluation (2018). As a profession accountant in trade, Homewood believes in knowledge, not speculative fashions. Utilizing knowledge primarily from NOAA he finds:

“• Common temperatures have risen by Zero.15°F/decade since 1895, with the rise most marked in winter.

• There was little or no rise in temperatures because the mid-1990s.

• Summers had been hotter within the 1930s than in any current years.

• Heatwaves had been significantly extra intense in a long time as much as 1960 than something seen since.

• Chilly spells are a lot much less extreme than they was.

• Central and Jap areas have change into wetter, with a consequent drastic discount in drought. Within the west, there was little long-term change.

• Whereas the local weather has change into wetter in a lot of the nation, proof reveals that floods are usually not getting worse.

• Hurricanes are usually not turning into both extra frequent or highly effective.

• Tornadoes are actually much less frequent than they was, significantly the stronger ones.

• Sea-level rise is at present no increased than across the mid-20th century.

• Wildfires now burn solely a fraction of the acreage they did previous to the Second World Battle

Briefly, the US local weather is in most methods much less excessive than it was. Temperatures are much less excessive at each ends of the size, storms much less extreme and droughts far much less damaging. Whereas it’s now barely hotter, this seems to have been largely helpful.”

In the case of what is occurring within the US, take a look at the information, not what NOAA and politicians say is occurring. See hyperlinks beneath Difficult the Orthodoxy.


Present Me Proof! Australian Senator Malcolm Roberts from Queensland could also be one of many loneliest politicians round. He takes on the claims of Australia’s nationwide science company, CSIRO, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Analysis Group on its fashions and its claims in regards to the risks of world warming.

In so doing, he’s posting a collection of papers and interviews with famous scientists. The interviews embody Astrophysicist Willie Quickly, who’s a director of SEPP, atmospheric temperature measurement pioneer John Christy, and Australian local weather modeler David Evans. In his interview Quickly states that science is an excellent instrument however is usually misused. He exposes what he calls “scientific malpractice” by Science Journal and the Australian Broadcasting Firm a couple of paper known as Marcott, et al. 2013. This paper, based mostly on proxy knowledge, claimed that present warming is unprecedented with temperatures increased than 90% of your entire Holocene (beginning about 11,700 years in the past). Present temperatures are shut, however don’t but exceed the height warming of the Holocene. The paper was shortly debunked however might seem once more in an UN IPCC report.

Christy mentioned fashions and the way poorly they carry out towards precise atmospheric knowledge – they’re too delicate to further CO2 rising the greenhouse impact and don’t embody the actual processes by which the earth loses power to house. Demonstrating the absurdity of the modeling and efforts to justify their sensitivity, Christy acknowledged one mannequin was run with the presumed situations of the Early Eocene 55 million years in the past, mentioned in final week’s TWTW. The mannequin warmed the planet to 55 ºC (131 ºF).

He additionally acknowledged that the “the local weather sensitivity” (temperature rise as a result of a doubling of atmospheric CO2) in present fashions fluctuate by an element of three. It’s arduous to say that one of these local weather science relies on physics when the fashions fluctuate so extensively. [TWTW note: Imagine calculating the lunar landing if gravity models varied by so much.] One of many issues is that fashions are based mostly on parametrizations and speculated theories (hypotheses). But our ignorance of the local weather system is big. For a Congressional listening to on controlling CO2, Christy used a mannequin to take away all emissions from the US – made all of them disappear, and the consequence was lower than the precise pure month-to-month variation.

Local weather modeler David Evans questioned whether or not it was potential to simulate the earth’s environment with the a number of layered grid system utilized in fashions. Climate values, corresponding to temperature and humidity, are represented by numbers, however many key options are a lot smaller than the cells within the grid – corresponding to clouds and updrafts. TWTW would add that modeling water vapor, mentioned above, and the three phases of water are different main issues. It will be fascinating to see a US Congressional committee listening to performed in a way as Roberts performed his interviews. Far too typically the members of congress are too thinking about parading their views than in studying what others assume or the precise info. See hyperlinks beneath Difficult the Orthodoxy.


City Warmth Island Impact: The city warmth island impact pertains to how urbanization is rising the measures of floor temperature. This can be one supply of the good overestimates within the fashions of atmospheric temperatures from rising CO2.  Two research (indicating that this impact is just not correctly accounted for in local weather fashions) are introduced within the hyperlinks beneath Evaluation of Latest Scientific Articles by CO2 Science and Measurement Points – Floor


Important Feat: Earlier TWTW had little use for “The Limits of Development” by the Membership of Rome. The fashions had been poorly designed and examined. However an article by power author Daniel Yergin modified this view. After George Mitchell of Mitchell Power learn The Limits, he was involved whether or not he may provide Chicago with pure gasoline as he was contracted to do. In keeping with Yergin:

“In 1981, he learn the draft of a journal article by one in every of his geologists. The article supplied a speculation that ran counter to what was taught in geology and petroleum engineering lessons. It instructed that industrial gasoline could possibly be extracted deep underground from very dense rock—denser than concrete. This was the supply rock, the ‘kitchen’ by which natural materials was ‘cooked’ for a number of million years and reworked into oil or gasoline. In keeping with the textbooks, the oil and gasoline then migrated into reservoirs, from which it could possibly be extracted.

“It was thought on the time that oil and gasoline may nonetheless stay within the shale however couldn’t be produced on a industrial foundation as a result of they might not circulate via the dense rock. The draft article disagreed. Mitchell, beset by worries in regards to the contract for Chicago, grew to become satisfied that right here could be the highway to his firm’s salvation. There needed to be a solution to show the obtained knowledge unsuitable.”

The remainder is historical past as seen by the monetary success of hydraulic fracturing mixed with horizontal drilling. See hyperlink beneath Oil and Pure Fuel – the Future or the Previous?


Variety of the Week: 64%: Many alarmists are claiming larger storms and extra extreme climate. For the Atlantic, a part of the issue is that now NOAA is naming storms that beforehand had been ignored or not even recognized to exist. Probably the most helpful knowledge for estimating storms and their severity are Accrued Cyclone (Hurricane) Power. Paul Homewood appears on the knowledge (Sep 9) and writes:

“Whereas the Accrued Cyclone Power is operating 28% above common within the Atlantic, globally it’s nicely under, at 64%.

“International hurricane numbers are additionally decrease this yr, as are the variety of main hurricanes. There isn’t any proof of accelerating hurricane frequency or depth, regardless of the BBC’s makes an attempt to mislead in any other case.”

Don’t imagine that what is occurring within the Atlantic is occurring in all places. See hyperlinks beneath Altering Climate and http://climatlas.com/tropical/

Science: Is the Solar Rising?

Photo voltaic Cycle 25 has formally begun

By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Sep 15, 2020

Hyperlink to Information Launch: Whats up Photo voltaic Cycle 25

By Workers, NOAA, Sep 15, 2020


Commentary: Is the Solar Rising?

Photo voltaic Cycle 25 To Repeat Low Cycle 24, Scientists Predict

By David Whitehouse, GWPF, Sep 16, 2020

Hyperlink to report: The following photo voltaic cycle: And why it issues for local weather

By David Whitehouse, GWPF, 2020

“What a continuation of low photo voltaic exercise would imply for international warming is one thing that can take a very long time to guage.”

“Most local weather scientists say its small change in radiance throughout its 11-year photo voltaic cycle – about one per cent – signifies that its impact is minor.”

[SEPP Comment: Yet a doubling of CO2 may have an influence of only 1 to 2% on earth’s energy flow to space, and most climate scientists say it can be devastating.]

Difficult the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

Local weather Change Reconsidered II: Bodily Science

Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, Nongovernmental Worldwide Panel on Local weather Change (NIPCC), 2013

Abstract: https://www.heartland.org/_template-assets/paperwork/CCR/CCR-II/Abstract-for-Policymakers.pdf

Local weather Change Reconsidered II: Organic Impacts

Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, Nongovernmental Worldwide Panel on Local weather Change (NIPCC), 2014

Abstract: https://www.heartland.org/media-library/pdfs/CCR-IIb/Abstract-for-Policymakers.pdf

Local weather Change Reconsidered II: Fossil Fuels

By A number of Authors, Bezdek, Idso, Legates, and Singer eds., Nongovernmental Worldwide Panel on Local weather Change, April 2019

Obtain with no cost:

Why Scientists Disagree About International Warming

The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus

By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, Nongovernmental Worldwide Panel on Local weather Change (NIPCC), Nov 23, 2015

Obtain with no cost:


Nature, Not Human Exercise, Guidelines the Local weather

S. Fred Singer, Editor, NIPCC, 2008

International Sea-Degree Rise: An Analysis of the Knowledge

By Craig D. Idso, David Legates, and S. Fred Singer, Heartland Coverage Transient, Might 20, 2019

Difficult the Orthodoxy

Methane and Local weather

By W. A. van Wijngaarden and W. Happer, CO2 Coalition, April 2020

An oversimplified image of the local weather conduct based mostly on a single course of can result in distorted conclusions

By Richard S. Lindzen, The European Bodily Journal Plus, June Three, 2020


Pervasive Warming Bias in CMIP6 Tropospheric Layers

By Ross McKitrick and John Christy, Earth and House Science, July 15, 2020


New Report: Official US Local weather Knowledge Reveals No Trigger For Alarm

Press Launch, GWPF, Sep 18, 2020

Hyperlink to report: The US Local weather in 2019

By Paul Homewood, GWPF, 2020

QLD Sen. Malcolm Roberts re CSIRO lack of empirical proof proving the case towards CO2

From Jim Simson, The Australian Local weather Sceptics Weblog, Sep 17, 2020


The “Escalator to Extinction” Delusion

By Jim Steele, Landscapes and Cycles, Sep 15, 2020


Local weather Change Apocalypse: “Completely Immunized From Falsification”

By Francis Menton, Manhattan Contrarian, Sep 17, 2020


Satellite tv for pc Observations Reveal Lowering Pattern in International Wildfires

By Workers, GWPF, Sep 16, 2020

Hyperlink to at least one paper: International developments in wildfire and its impacts: perceptions versus realities in a altering world

By Stefan H. Doerr and Cristina Santín, Philosophical Transactions B, The Royal Society, June 5, 2016


Hyperlink to second paper: A human-driven decline in international burned space

By N. Andela, et al. Science, June 30, 2017

https://science.sciencemag.org/content material/356/6345/1356/

California Has At all times Had Fires, Environmental Alarmism Makes Them Worse Than Essential

By Michael Shellenberger, Forbes, Sep 10, 2020


“‘California was a really smoky place traditionally,’ says Malcolm North of the US Forest Survey. “Although we’re seeing space burned that’s off-the-charts, it’s nonetheless most likely lower than what was burned earlier than Europeans arrived.’”

Gavin Newsom’s Exceedingly Ignorant Local weather Declare

By Jim Steele, Landscapes and Cycles, Sep 14, 2020


Defending the Orthodoxy

US Third Nationwide Local weather Evaluation: Local weather Change Impacts in the USA

U.S. International Change Analysis Program, Spring 2014

13 Businesses, One Imaginative and prescient: Empower the Nation with International Change Science


A Reconstruction of Regional and International Temperature for the Previous 11,300 Years

By Shaun Marcott, et al. Science, Mar eight, 2013

https://science.sciencemag.org/content material/339/6124/1198

28 million People may expertise megafires by 2070: evaluation

By Celine Castronuovo, The Hill, Sep 15, 2020


Hyperlink to evaluation: How Local weather Migration Will Reshape America

Tens of millions will likely be displaced. The place Will they go?

By Abrahm Lustgarten, New York Instances Journal, Sep 15, 2020

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/09/15/journal/climate-crisis-migration-america.html?utm_source=The+Muck+Rack+Day by day&utm_campaign=4f175c39c3-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_09_15_04_09&utm_medium=e-mail&utm_term=0_af2b2023a3-4f175c39c3-19777857

“In keeping with the Journal of the Affiliation of Environmental and Useful resource Economists, roughly 1 in 12 People within the Southern half of the nation will transfer towards California, the Mountain West or the Northwest over the following 45 years due to local weather elements.”

[SEPP Comment: The article states that analysis claims: “approximately 28 million people across the country could face Manhattan-size megafires by 2070, with Northern California residents experiencing them annually.” So, people will move into the megafires?]

Questioning the Orthodoxy

But when so…

By John Robson, Local weather Dialogue Nexus, Sep 16, 2020

[SEPP Comment: Assuming the fictitious goal can be reached, what is an ideal equilibrium climate?]

‘The Worth of Books’ (David Boaz, Alex Epstein on Oil, Fuel, and Authorities: The U.S. Expertise)

By Roger Donway, Grasp Useful resource, Sep 16, 2020

After Paris!

Europe urges China to match its local weather ambitions

By Frédéric Simon, EURACTIV.com, Sep 14, 2020 [H/t GWPF]

“The European Union will press China to purpose for local weather neutrality by 2060 or finally face punitive carbon tariffs throughout a summit on Monday (14 September) geared toward concluding a bilateral commerce settlement by the tip of the yr.”

[SEPP Comment: The date for China is slipping while the date for the EU is advancing.]

Vietnam brings cement sector into new local weather submission to the UN

The southeast Asian nation has made slight enhancements to its 2030 local weather plan however nonetheless expects emissions to extend quickly over the following decade

By Chloé Farand, Local weather Residence Information, Sep 14, 2020 [H/t Dennis Ambler]

“UN Local weather Change head Patricia Espinosa informed Local weather Residence Information this month she anticipated solely 80 out of the 197 signatories to the Paris Settlement to submit up to date plans by the UN deadline on 31 December 2020. China – the world’s largest emitter – was not amongst them.”

[SEPP Comment: Keep the paper cuts going!]

Change in US Administrations – Appointment

Appointment of Local weather Realist David Legates at NOAA Sparks Protest by Representatives Grijalva and Huffman

By Marlo Lewis, Jr. CEI, Sep 18, 2020


Actual Local weather Science From David Legates Appears To Scare the Media, Will It Scare NOAA?

By Jim Lakely, The Heartland Institute, Sepp 12, 2020


Congress Investigates the Appointment of Legates to NOAA

By Charles Rotter, WUWT, Sep 16, 2020

Letter from the Home Chair of the Committee on Pure Assets and Chair of Subcommittee on Water, Oceans, and Wildlife, to Performing Underneath Secretary of Commerce for NOAA, Sep 15, 2020

Longtime Local weather Science Denier Employed At NOAA

By Rebecca Hersher, NPR, Sep 12, 2020 [H/t Bernie Kepshire]


Professor who has questioned local weather science employed at NOAA

By J. Edward Moreno, The Hill, Sep 12, 2020


Issues within the Orthodoxy

Declare: Europeans Don’t Care Sufficient about Local weather Change to Act

By Eric Worrall, WUWT, Sep 14, 2020

Fee beneath fireplace for together with ‘carbon sinks’ into EU local weather objectives

By Frédéric Simon, EURACTIV.com, Sep 18, 2020 [H/t GWPF]


Looking for a Widespread Floor


Subtitle: our failure to dwell in concord with nature.

By Judith Curry, Local weather And so forth. Sep 15, 2020

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