By Thorstein Seim and Borgar T. Olsen
A evaluation in WattsUpWithThat was carried out on our paper by Kevin Kilty. It’s discovered right here. The reviewer´s criticism of the paper was summed in three factors:
- The development, calibration and use of the IR sensors.
- The power stability calculation which searches for, however can not find leaks of power to clarify the null end result.
- The various specific and implicit makes use of of the Stefan-Boltzmann system that are faulty, and which solid doubt, not on the Greenhouse impact, however on the null end result right here.
We’ll attempt to reply his criticism and add extra of the experimental particulars that he requests. However allow us to first make a abstract of the experiment.
The aim of the simulated earth/environment experiment was to a) be capable to measure IR radiation, b) to scale back thermal power losses to the environment and c) to measure temperature extra precisely.
The experimental setup is proven in Determine 1: The entrance camber was added with a view to separate the CO2 gasoline from the air within the rear chamber. This reduces warmth loss from the rear chamber by the 2 home windows as a consequence of warmth conduction.
The one meter lengthy, 50 cm large and 30 cm excessive field, with a quantity of 150 liters, is made from insulating 5 cm thick Styrofoam plates. The 2 chambers are separated by a zero.03 mm skinny clear plastic movie. The window within the entrance of the field was additionally produced from this movie. The inside partitions of the chambers (besides the rear wall) are lined by skinny, polished Al-foil. The Al-foil displays many of the IR radiation and thereby reduces the warmth loss by the partitions. The size of the rear and entrance chamber is 30 and 70 cm, respectively. IR radiation was produced by heating a black-painted steel plate (or a skinny, black painted Al-foil) to 100 oC by a 500W halogen lamp. A thermometer, measuring the gasoline temperature, was positioned near the roof in every chamber and screened from direct radiation from the heating plate.
An IR radiation detector is situated in entrance of the window on the field (IR1). One other detector is positioned behind the field (IR2) and measures IR backscatter radiation by way of a 6×6 cm window within the rear wall. To measure the heating of the within of the rear Styrofoam wall with excessive accuracy, eight serial-connected and black-painted thermocouples was positioned on the rear wall.
To keep away from native convection and temperature gradients within the two chambers, a small fan with lowered velocity is positioned in every chamber. Vitality enter to the followers was small, solely zero.6 watts. Because the gasoline expands throughout heating, every chamber has a small 5 mm aperture (lined with a bit of plastic) within the “roof” to keep away from rising the strain. To test if infiltration from the encompassing air modifications the quantity of CO2 within the entrance, the CO2 degree was inspected after the experiment. The chamber was nonetheless crammed with CO2.
Building, calibration and use of the IR sensors
To measure IR radiation and the backscatter generated by CO2, we constructed two IR detectors, utilizing wide-band (three to 24 μm) thermopile circuits with an almost flat frequency response.
Calibration: To acquire a radiation spectrum near that of a black radiator, we used a black iron pan, crammed with water of temperature of 100 oC and allowed the temperature to fall to 15 oC. The measured relationship between the temperature of the radiating supply and the output of the detector (in mV), is proven in Determine 2:
We see that the connection is non-linear, not linear as anticipated from the Seebeck impact. As a substitute, we discover that the voltage response relies upon linearly on the power density of the radiation from the IR supply. We computed the IR power density output E (W/m2) from the pan, utilizing the equation E = σTfour (the Stefan-Boltzmann’s regulation) the place σ = 5.67 *10-Eight W/(m2Okfour) and T is the temperature in Kelvin. The result’s proven in Determine three.
Getting a linear relationship helps the belief that we are able to use the S-B equation to quantify IR radiation with the detector. However the reviewer identified that the IR supply isn’t an ideal black physique, and the emitted IR radiation would possibly then be barely decrease than indicated by the S-B regulation (most likely lowered by ca. 5%).
The reviewer additionally identified that there was a voltage offset of ca 20 – 30 mV within the detector circuit output. This offset could be very small, in comparison with the working vary of the IR detector of greater than ± 5 volts. The circuit used is a widely known one, f. inst. recommended by Hamamatsu.
The reviewer writes: “The sensor accommodates along with a thermopile, a extremely correct unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor to help in constructing a temperature compensation circuit”.
We had been warned in opposition to combining the NTC and the thermopile circuit to compensate for variation in gadget temperature. It’s a lot better to make separate circuits for the thermopile after which do the temperature correction within the computing process.
FOV (area of view)
The FOV of the detector is proven in Determine four. A typical manner of defining the FOV is to make use of the half-angle, i.e. the worth the place the sensitivity is lowered to 50% of the utmost worth. Determine four exhibits that the half-angle is near ±5 levels. At ±10 levels ca 98% of the FOV is included.
With the size of 1 meter of the field the detector IR1 “sees” a round space with a diameter of 35 cm, protecting the heating plate and many of the rear wall. When the detector is positioned in entrance of the window it then “sees” a 35 cm round space of the 30 x 50 cm rear wall. The entire steel plate is “seen” inside the half-angle FOV.
When the detector IR2 is measuring IR radiation from the inside of the field, it primarily “sees” the entrance chamber the place the heated gasoline and home windows radiates. The radiation is homogenously distributed throughout the 2 chambers, so the measurement scenario is much like that used throughout calibration.
Because the reviewer factors out the IR1 detector “sees” greater than the heating plate, however the plate covers the principle a part of what the FOV measures.
The temperature enhance within the two chambers throughout heating was equal (inside the measuring accuracy) with air or CO2 within the entrance chamber. See determine 5. That is a very powerful lead to our research.
The reviewer appears to misread Determine 5:
“This experiment is now repeated with the entrance compartment crammed with 100% CO2. Now emitted IR radiation from the aluminum plate is partially absorbed by CO2 elevating the temperature of the entrance compartment to round 33C. This causes radiation passing by the entrance window to drop quickly”.
That is undoubtedly not what we are saying. The again chamber heats up from 20 oC to 46 oC (higher two curves) and within the entrance chamber from 20 oC to 32 oC (decrease two curves). The purpose is that the curves are equivalent for plain air and for 100% CO2 within the entrance chamber. This was stunning to us, since NASA (and Al Gore) claimed that we must always have further warming from 100% CO2. Additionally, the radiation passing by the entrance window doesn’t drop quickly however approaches a continuing worth. See determine 6.
“The lacking IR is presumed to be redirected or mirrored towards the rear compartment”.
We measure, not presume, that CO2 IR radiation is redirected or mirrored towards the rear compartment.
The IR1 detector measured lowered IR output by the entrance window with CO2 within the entrance chamber.
Determine 6. Absorption of IR radiation. Vary: 2.5 – 20 µm. Heating is finished with the Al-plate.
The detector is pointing on the heart of the 100 oC heating plate. With CO2 within the entrance chamber the IR radiation decreased 29.Eight W/m2 or ca 10%. That is near what we discover from the HITRAN data-base, i.e. 11.6% for a 70 cm lengthy tube. The marginally decrease measured IR walue is likely to be as a consequence of the truth that the detector FOV is barely bigger than the heating plate. Anyway, an error of some % won’t affect our outcomes and conclusions in any vital manner.
To search out how a lot IR radiation is leaving trough the entrance window, we have to know the way a lot it varies at totally different positions. For this we used a thermopile detector and not using a lens, giving it a large FOV. The detector was used to measure IR output alongside the 50 cm large entrance window. The spectral sensitivity is a slender band within the four μm area the place CO2 absorbs/emits IR radiation. The result’s present in determine 7, displaying that the output is near fixed, with roughly ±four % variation.
The IR2 detector measured elevated IR radiation hitting the rear wall with CO2 within the entrance chamber. See determine Eight.
Determine Eight. Backscatter (elevated IR radiation measured by IR2), acquired by the rear wall of the field, elevated 17 W/m2 with CO2 within the entrance field. Heating is finished with the Al-foil.
The IR2 detector “sees” primarily the IR mirrored from the 2 home windows and the gasoline inside the two chambers. The distribution of mirrored IR is comparatively homogenously distributed within the chambers, verified by determine 7. The measurement scenario is due to this fact not very totally different from that used to calibrate the detector.
The reviewer have some objections:
“When the equipment is in operation the aluminum plate at 100C radiates IR and causes the rear compartment to achieve a gradual temperature of about 46C. The authors “compute” the irradiance of the again floor utilizing the Stefan-Boltzmann regulation. When the entrance compartment is crammed with air all of this “computed” IR energy is meant to exit the entrance window”.
What we do: We use the calibrated IR detector IR1 to measure the quantity of IR leaving by the entrance window, with air after which with CO2 within the entrance chamber. We discover that extra IR power is absorbed within the field with CO2 within the entrance chamber. We use the calibrated IR detector IR2 to measure the quantity of IR hitting the rear wall. We discover that extra IR power is acquired by the rear wall with CO2 within the entrance chamber.
Misuse of the Stefan-Boltzmanns regulation?
“The equipment right here isn’t a cavity. It’s clear on one finish and partially so on the opposite. Having a considerable fraction of its floor clear implies that placement of supplies and their detailed radiation traits matter. The primary order of approximation to IR radiation from one thing that isn’t a cavity, and never isothermal, is to make use of the Stefan-Boltzmann regulation, however to assign applicable emissivities lower than 1.zero to totally different supplies. The blackened aluminum radiator has an emissivity near 1.zero. It’s maybe zero.96, however the naked Styrofoam is much from black at IR wavelengths. An accepted estimate of emissivity of this materials is zero.60; i.e. at any temperature it is going to radiate solely 60% as strongly because the Stefan-Boltzmann regulation predicts”.
The reviewer states that we should embrace the emissivity ε within the S-B equation to get the proper relationship between temperature T and IR power move E:
E = εσTfour
We’re in an advantageous scenario since we are able to measure the IR radiation and the temperature of Styrofoam when it’s heated! This was achieved and we discovered that, in our experimental setup, the worth of ε was measured to be 1.zero ± zero.zero25, not zero.6! So possibly the chambers behave a bit like a cavity in spite of everything… This end result additionally negates the criticism of utilizing the S-B equation within the calibration process.
Beneath Vitality stability the reviewer claims that now we have power loss. Sure, after all. The radiation and thermal power is flowing from the again wall by the entrance window (like IR from the earth floor to the area). After 30 minutes a near regular state was established. IR power from CO2 within the entrance chamber is partly misplaced by the entrance window, partly returned to the rear chamber. The purpose is that we don’t observe any further warming within the rear chamber regardless of of the elevated degree of IR radiation measured there. That is why we are saying that the again scatter heating idea is likely to be incorrect.
Vitality content material in gases
The reviewer presents another idea:
“An environment containing 70 cm of 100% CO2 at a strain of 100kPa has efficient emissivity of about 14%. As soon as this gasoline absorbs its restrict of 14% of IR from the again compartment (i.e. 14% of 80 watts) and reaches an equilibrium temperature it doesn’t reradiate this backward, however moderately in all instructions. It’s mirrored many instances from the aluminum foil, with four% being absorbed with every reflection, some passes out the entrance EDTA window, some passes the intermediate EDTA window and reaches the rear compartment. This might simply be solely 10% of what had been absorbed within the entrance compartment”.
It appears that evidently the reviewer believes that the power simply disappears by the partitions and home windows. He means that solely 10 % of the power move that has been absorbed by CO2 within the entrance chamber reaches the rear compartment, which is ca 2W/m2 of 20W/m2. Nevertheless, we measure an elevated power move of 17 W/m2, not 2W/m2, returned to the rear chamber,
“The gasoline within the rear compartment accommodates so little CO2 that its emissivity (which equals its absorptivity) might be within the neighborhood of only one%. Thus, the null results of this experiment, moderately than being a shock, needs to be solely anticipated”.
It’s appropriate that the air (in addition to the home windows) absorbs (and emit) IR radiation, however the absorption in air is way bigger than 1%. This was examined by us in a 30 cm lengthy field Styrofoam field with a single window. The IR emission from the air within the field elevated linearly with temperature within the 15 – 35 oC vary. The rise of IR emitted by the air was vital, about 30% of the elevated radiation from the Styrofoam partitions. (The relative humidity of the air was ca 30 – 35%).
By measuring IR emission with/with out the window we discovered that roughly 30% of the rise within the measured IR was emitted by the window. Because the temperature of the home windows are the identical with air and CO2, the IR contribution from them are additionally equal.
In Determine Eight the quantity of IR radiation emitted again to the rear wall is proven, with air in each chambers (black circles). That is IR radiation acquired from the heated air and the heated home windows. The measured IR increment is ca 65 W/m2, whereas the rise with CO2 within the entrance chamber is 17 W/m2, or a rise of about 25%. The radiation absorbed by the air is re-emitted in all instructions and mirrored by the Al-foil partitions, with some absorption. By including CO2 within the entrance chamber, much less of the IR from the heating plate leaves the field by the entrance window. The IR2 detector exhibits that the IR degree contained in the rear chamber will increase considerably, and stays excessive!
A last important evaluation remark:
“One extra error in making use of the Stefan-Boltzmann regulation happens within the translation of the calibration switch operate to an irradiance worth. The calculation talked about within the citation in regards to the calibration process implies a one-way switch from the blackened pan to the sensor, when the truth is the switch is 2 manner between the sensor and pan”.
Theoretically this might result in an error, however it’s too small to be measurable. The pan, crammed with water, weighs 7 kilo, whereas the small detector weights ca 200 grams. It’s positioned just a few seconds in entrance of the pan and eliminated after the IR measurement is carried out. The temperature of the detector is near that of the encompassing room. The detector field is made from aluminum. When the measurements are achieved the field primarily displays IR from the room, which is what the black pan “sees” between measurements!
All the reviewer´s statements about misuse of the S-B regulation has been rejected.
We had been in a position to measure IR radiation with an accuracy of ±2.5 %.
IR backscatter from CO2 within the entrance chamber to the rear chamber doesn’t enhance the temperature of the rear wall and the air within the chamber, as assumed by the local weather fashions.